This paper enables the rapid creation and modification of freeform surfaces inside an augmented reality environment, and focuses on methods for enabling increased flexibility during exploratory, conceptual industrial product design through three-dimensional (3D) sketch-based user input. Specifically, we address the role of multiple shape representations with varying uncertainty levels during 3D conceptual sketching, along with methods to transform between those representations. The main contributions of this work are: (1) the formulation of virtual shape data in multiple, concurrent representations (points and surfaces), and a regression method to transition fluidly back and forth between these representations during design, (2) methods for deforming and exploring the product shape using these multiple representations, and (3) representations of these forms such that designers can explore conceptual designs without the need for detailed surface operations such as trimming or continuity enforcement. Through incorporating these contributions, we introduce techniques that can be incorporated in future computer-aided conceptual design systems. These contributions are demonstrated for freeform surface design, with examples of computer mouse and car seat exterior surfaces.
Mark Fuge, M. Ersin Yumer, Gunay Orbay, Levent Burak Kara. (2012). Conceptual Design and Modification of Freeform Surfaces Using Dual Shape Representations in Augmented Reality Environments. Computer-Aided Design, Volume 44, Issue 10, Pages 1020–1032.