Visual Design and Engineering Laboratory

Carnegie Mellon University

Pencil-like Sketch Rendering of 3D Scenes Using Trajectory Planning and Dynamic Tracking


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Objective: We present a new non-photorealistic rendering method to render 3D scenes in the form of pencil-like sketches.

Methods: This work is based on the observation that the dynamic feedback mechanism involving the human visual system and the motor control of the hand collectively generates the visual characteristics unique to hand-drawn sketches. At the heart of our approach is a trajectory planning and tracking algorithm that generate the sketch in multiple layers using a dynamic pen model. On each layer, a set of target strokes are generated from the silhouette lines, edges, and shaded regions which serve as the target trajectory for a closed-loop dynamic pen model. The pen model then produces the rendered sketch, whose characteristics can be adjusted with a set of trajectory and tracking parameters. This process continues in several layers until the tonal difference between the sketch and the original 3D render is minimized.

Results: We demonstrate our approach with examples that are created by controlling the parameters of our sketch rendering algorithms.

Conclusion: The examples not only show typical sketching artifacts that are common to human-drawn sketches but also demonstrate that it is capable of producing multiple sketching styles.


Gunay Orbay, Levent Burak Kara. (2014). Pencil-like Sketch Rendering of 3D Scenes Using Trajectory Planning and Dynamic Tracking. Journal of Visual Languages and Computing, 25(4), 481 – 493, 2014.

 title = "Pencil-like sketch rendering of 3D scenes using trajectory planning and dynamic tracking ",
 journal = "Journal of Visual Languages & Computing ",
 volume = "25",
 number = "4",
 pages = "481 - 493",
 year = "2014",
 note = "",
 issn = "1045-926X",
 doi = "",
 url = "",
 author = "Günay Orbay and Levent Burak Kara",
 keywords = "Non-photorealistic rendering",
 keywords = "Dynamic pen model",
 keywords = "Drawing style "